EM2207E "Pulmonary Function Testing: History, 'Normal' Values, and Implications for Bias" (IM GR-072222)

Purpose and Overview

Understand history of spirometry, where reference equations and predicted/normal values come from, and understand how these predicted values can lead to bias in interpretation.

Target Audience

UT Southwestern faculty, fellows, residents and medical students, community physicians, nurse clinicians, physician assistants and nurses.

Learning Objectives

At the conclusion of this activity, the participant should be able to:

  • Understand general history of spirometry.
  • Understand how reference equations were derived.
  • Understand potential bias of race-specific reference equations.
Course summary
Available credit: 
  • 1.00 AMA
Course opens: 
Course expires: 

Photo: Andrew Tomlinson, M.D.Andrew Tomlinson, M.D.
Assistant Professor of Internal Medicine
Division of Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine

Available Credit

  • 1.00 AMA


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Required Hardware/software

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